cURL fails on one device but not the other

This one is a head scratcher for me. Two identical devices, same Supervisor v14.12.1, same BalenaOS v2.105.16, same curl version 7.78.0, and same network. When I curl, one device returns at 204:

root:~# curl -I     
HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
Date: Thu, 30 Nov 2023 17:21:39 GMT
Connection: keep-alive
CF-Cache-Status: DYNAMIC
Strict-Transport-Security: max-age=15552000
Server: cloudflare
CF-RAY: 82e4c49ee8a06398-ORD
alt-svc: h3=":443"; ma=86400

and the other returns this:

root:~# curl -I     
curl: (35) OpenSSL SSL_connect: SSL_ERROR_SYSCALL in connection to

Any idea why this might be happening? As far as I can tell the ca-certificates files are the same as well.